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Monday, April 17, 2017

ေဒၚနယ္ထရန္ ့ စစ္တိုက္ျပီး သမိုင္းစာမ်တ္နွာသစ္ဖြင့္ဦးမလား


 ေဒၚနယ္ထရန္ ့ စစ္တိုက္ျပီး သမိုင္းစာမ်တ္နွာသစ္ဖြင့္ဦးမလား ဆိုတာလဲ စဥ္းစားစရာ ။ သမိုင္းတေလ်ာက္ လည္း အဲလိုပဲ အပ်က္အပ်က္နဲ ့ဲ အေျခခံဥပေဒကို ေက်ာ္ျပီးလုပ္သြားတဲ့ သမတေတြ ဒုနဲ ့ေဒး ။ ကိုရီယား ၊ ဗီယက္နမ္စတဲ့စစ္ေတြကို သမတေတြ စစ္မေၾကျငာပဲတိုက္ခဲ့တယ္။ အေျခအေနအရလည္း ျဖစ္ခ်င္ျဖစ္ခဲ့မယ္။ ေသခ်ာတာကေတာ့ စစ္တိုက္ရင္ ကြန္ဂရက္ကို သမတက သိပ္ထည့္မစဥ္းစားတာအမွန္ ။ အေျခခံဥအေဒအရ စစ္ေၾကညာခြင့္ရွိတဲ ့ ကြန္ဂရက္ဟာ စစ္ေရးမွာ အျမဲတမ္းလိုလို သမတေနာက္ကလိုက္ေနရတာၾကာေပါ့ ။ ထရူးမင္းရဲ့ ကိုရီးယားစစ္ပြဲမွသည္ ကလင္တန္ရဲ့ ကိုဆိုဗိုစစ္ပြဲအလယ္ အိုဗားမားရဲ့ ဗင္လာဒင္အဆံုးပဲ ။

၁၉၆၈ တုံကင္းပင္လယ္ေကြ ့တိုက္ခိုက္ခံရမွူမွာ ဗီယက္နမ္စစ္စျဖစ္တယ္။ ေလေၾကာင္းနဲ ့လက္တံု ့ျပန္တယ္ ။ စစ္ျဖစ္ျပီး ၂ ရက္ေလာက္ေနမွ ကြန္ဂရက္ခြင့္ျပ ုခ်က္ရတာျဖစ္ျပီး စစ္ဦးစီးခ်ုဳပ္ျဖစ္တဲ့ သမတကို အေမရိကားအားဘယ္လို ရန္လိုတဲ့ တိုက္ခိုက္မွုမ်ိ ုးမဆို လိုအပ္သလို အေရးယူေဆာင္ရြက္ခြင့္ေပးခဲ့တာမ်ိ ုးျဖစ္ေလေတာ့ သမတဂ်ြန္ဆင္ဟာ (Prerogative Power) ကို အျပည့္အ၀အသံုးခ်ျပီး စစ္ကို အမုန္းတိုက္ခဲ့တယ္ ။ သမိုင္းစာမ်တ္နွာသစ္ဖြင့္လွစ္ခဲ့တယ္ ။

နစ္ဆင္လက္ထက္ ၁၉၇၁ ေရာက္ေတာ့ လူထုအသံညံလာမွ ကြန္ဂရက္က (Ton kin Gulf Resolution) ကို ျပန္ရုတ္သိမ္းခဲ့တာျဖစ္တယ္ ။ အဲေနာက္ပိုင္းလည္း ကြန္ဂရက္နဲ ့ သမတနစ္ဆင္တို ့ သူတျပန္ကိုယ္တျပန္ war power လုတဲ့ပြဲေတြဆက္တိုက္ျဖစ္ခဲ့တယ္။ ျငင္း၇င္းခုန္ရင္း ဗံုးေတြလည္းဆက္တိုက္ၾကဲခဲ့တယ္ ။ ဥပမာ ၁၉၆၄ နဲ ့ ၁၉၇၃ အတြင္း လာအုိနယ္ထဲက်ဲတဲ့ဗုံးတင္ တန္ခ်ိန္ ၂ သန္းခြဲရွိခဲ့ျပီး ဒုတိယကမၻာစစ္ထဲ ဂ်ာမန္နဲ ဂ်ပန္ေျမေပၚ အေမရိကန္ ၾကဲခ်တဲ့ ဗံုးထက္မ်ားခဲ့တယ္ ။တကယ္ေတာ့ စစ္ေရးမွာ ဘယ္သမတမွ ကြန္ဂရက္ကို သိပ္ဂရုစိုက္ခဲ့တာမဟုတ္ဘူး ။ အမ်ားေလးစားပါတယ္ဆိုတဲ့ သမတ လင္ကြန္းကိုေတာင္မွ အေမရိကန္ ျပည္တြင္းစစ္မွာ ( Constitutional Dictatorship) လို ့ သမုတ္ခဲ့ၾကတယ္ မဟုတ္လား ။
ခမည္းေတာ္ ဘြတ္ရွ္ လက္ထက္တုန္းကလည္း ပင္လယ္ေကြ ့ထဲကို စစ္သား ငါးသိန္းေလာက္လြတ္တာ ငါးလေလာက္ၾကာမွ ကြန္ဂရက္ခြင့္ျပုခ်က္ရတာပါ ။ သမတရဲ့ စစ္ေရးအရအေရးယူပိုင္ခြင့္ (AUMF) ကိုကြန္ဂရက္မွာ ဖိအားေပး ျပဌာန္းနိုင္ခဲ့ျပီး သမတလုပ္ပိုင္ခြင့္ စာမ်တ္ႏွာသစ္ဖြင့္ခဲ့တယ္ ။ တခ်ိန္ထဲမွာ ကုလသမဂၢကလည္း အီရက္တို ့ရဲ့ က်ူးေက်ာ္မွုကို ရွုတ္ခ်ျပီး ကူ၀ိတ္ထဲက တပ္ေတြကိုခ်က္ခ်င္းရုပ္သိမ္းဖို ့မီးစိမ္းျပလိုက္တာမို ့ စီနီယာဘြတ္ရွ္အေနနဲ ့ promote လုပ္ဖို ့ အခြင့္အေရးေကာင္းေကာင္းရသြားခဲ့ဘူးတယ္ ။

သားေတာ္ေမာင္ ဂ်ဴနီယာဘုရွ္လက္ထက္ (War on Terror) မွာ ဂ်ီနီဗာ ကြန္ဗန္းရွင္းတို ့ အေျခခံလူ ့အခြင့္အေရးတို ့အကုန္ ေျမာင္းထဲေရာက္တာပဲ။ 9/11 ကို လက္တုံ ့ျပန္ဖို ့ Patriotic Act ကို ျပဌာန္းလိုက္နိုင္တယ္ ။အဲ ေနာက္ပိုင္း တိုက္လိုက္တဲ့စစ္ တကမၻာလံုး နီးပါးပဲ ။ ဖစ္လပင္း ၊ ေဂ်ာ္ဂ်ီယာ ၊ ယီမင္ ၊ ဂ်စ္ဘူတီ ၊ ကင္ညာ၊ အီသီယိုပီးယား၊ အီရက္၊ အာဖဂန္၊ ဆိုမာလီယာ ။ ဒါတင္မက ပင္လယ္ျပင္ေတြမွာလည္း ေတြ ့ရာသခ်ိဳီင္း ဒါးမဆိုင္းဆိုလို လက္ဦးမွူယူျပီးစစ္ဆင္တယ္ ။ ျပည္တြင္းမွာလည္း ဖုန္းၾကားျဖတ္နားေထာင္တာတို ့ ၀ရမ္းမပါပဲ ဖမ္းဆိီးနိုင္တာတို ့အကုန္လုပ္ခဲ့ျပီး သမတရဲ့ စစ္ေရးလုပ္ပိုင္ခြင့္ အထူးစာမ်တ္နွာသစ္ေတြဖြင့္ ခဲ့တယ္ ။

ေက်ာင္းဆရာေလး အိုဗားမားရဲ့ (Kill and Capture Policy) ကလည္း နိုင္ငံေတြရဲ့ နယ္နိမိတ္နဲ ့ အခ် ုပ္အျခာကို ကိုေခါင္းထဲ ထည့္တာမ်ိ ုးမဟုတ္ခဲ့ဘူး ။ တပ္ေတြရုပ္သိမ္းမယ္ေျပာျပီး patriotic act ကို ေနာက္ထပ္ ၂ ႏွစ္ေလာက္ထပ္ သက္တမ္းတိုးခဲ့ျပီး စစ္စခန္းဆက္သြားခဲ့တယ္ ။ နည္းပညာပိုမိုထြန္းကားလာတာနဲ ့အမွ် Drone strikes ေတြ ပက္ပက္စက္စက္အသံုးမ်ားခဲ့တယ္ ။ ထို ့နည္းတူ အရပ္သားေသဆံုးမွူေတြလည္း စံခ်ိန္တင္ခဲ့တယ္ ။ အျခားတဘက္ကလည္း အျကမ္းဖက္သမား သံုးခ်ိ ုးနွစ္ခ်ိ ုးေလာက္ ေျပာင္သြားျပီေျပာျပီး သမိုင္းစာမ်တ္နွာသစ္ဖြင့္ခဲ့ျပန္တယ္ ။
စစ္ေရးနဲ ့ပတ္သက္လာရင္ အေျခခံဥပေဒအရ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးမဏုိင္နဲ ့ဥပေဒျပဳေရးမဏိုင္ ကို လုပ္ပိုင္ခြင့္ မွွ်ေ၀ေပးထားေပမယ္ ့ သမတေတြဟာ လုပ္ပိုင္ခြင့္လစ္မစ္ေဘာင္ကို ေက်ာ္သြားေလ့ရွိတယ္။ ။ အေမရိကန္ျပည္သူေကာင္းၾကို းခ်မ္းသာအတြက္ဆိုရင္ တကမၻာလံုးမွာရွိတဲ့ ဘယ္သူကိုမဆို ဘယ္ေနရာမွာမဆို အေရးယူပိုင္ခြင့္ prerogative power သမတမွာရွိေနတယ္ ။ အဲဒီလို အေျခခံဥပေဒထဲက (Necessary and Proper Clause) ေမွ်ာ့့ ့ ့ၾကိဳ းကို သမတက သံုးျပီဆိုတာနဲ ့အကုန္ေျမြကိုက္ေတာ့တယ္ ။ မူရင္း အေျခခံဥပေဒကိုေတာင္ဆန္ ့က်င္သလိုျဖစ္ကုန္ျပီး အေျခခံလူ ့အခြင့္အေရးအပါအ၀င္ နိုင္ငံတကာ ဥပေဒေတြကိုလည္းေျမာင္းထဲပို ့သလို ျဖစ္ကုန္တယ္ ။ ထို ့အတူ နိုင္ငံသားေတြရဲ့အခြင့္အေရးေတြလည္း က်ြဲကူးေရပါ ဆံုးရွဳ ံးကုန္တယ္ ။ ေကာင္းေပ့ဆို တဲ့ အေမ၇ိကန္ အေျခခံဥပေဒမွာလည္း အဲလို စိန္ေခၚမွူေတြ ရွိတယ္ ။ အဲဒီ ေပ်ာ ့ကြက္ကိုနင္းျပီး သမတ ေဒၚနယ္ထရန္ ့လည္း စာမ်တ္နွာသစ္ဖြင့္မလားဆိုတာ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ၾကတာေပါ့ ။
Aung Myat Thu

Citation
(1) "Tonkin Gulf Resolution." www.ourdocument.gov. U.S. National Archives & Records Administration, 07 August 1964. Web. 2 Dec 2013. <700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20408 >.
(2) Gilmore, Eugene A. "WAR POWER-EXECUTIVE POWER AND THE CONSTITUTION." Iowa Law Review. 1943: 463. Print.
(3) Yoo, John C. "The Powers of War and Peace: The Constitution and Foreign Affairs after 9/11." University of Chicago Press. 2005: 1. Print.
(4) Jon , Swaine. "Barak Obama has the Authority to use drone strike to kill Americans on US soil." Telegraph. 06 03 2013: n. page. Print.
(5) Michael, S. Paulsen. "How to Avoid an Unconstitutional War: A Beginner’s Guide for Presidents and Congresses." Public Discourse. 09 09 2013: n. page. Web. 7 Dec. 2013.
(6) Adrianne, Jeffries. "US has been monitoring German chancellor Angela Merkel's phone since 2002, report says." Verge. 26 10 2013: n. page. Web. 7 Dec. 2013. <theverge.com>.
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/03/laos-vietnam-war-us-bombing-uxo
The Tokin Gulf Resolution of 1964
From the end of WWII to 1968, America pursued the doctrine of containment to control communism for more than two decades. When U.S ships in the Gulf of Tokin had been attacked by North Vietnamese on August 4, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson dispatched U.S planes against the attackers. As the Chief of State and Chief of executive, he newly reopened the presidential era. Two days later, he asked Congress to pass a resolution to support his actions. That resolution was called the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. That joint resolution was to promote the maintenance of international peace and security in Southeast Asia and passed on August 7.
In fact, President Johnson’s order to dispatch U.S plane against attackers was illegal and unilateral. After that, it became the subject of great political controversy in the course of the undeclared war that followed. Congress approved and supported the determination of the President as Commander in Chief to take “all necessary measure to repeal any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression” (Tonkin Gulf Resolution, 1964). As a result, President Johnson, and later President Nixon got the legal basis for their military policies in Vietnam. As public resistance to the war heightened, the resolution was repealed by Congress in January 1971.
            Were all the wars what the U.S waged constitutional or not? Do we need to rethink about the role of president as Commander in Chief? In the constitution, this role is specifically enumerated in Article 2, section 2, paragraph 1: “The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of United States, and the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Services of the United States”. On the other hand, the Constitution stipulates that the legislative and executive branches share the war power. However, presidents have initiated the use of force far more frequently than they have awaited congressional authorization, and they continued to wage war sometimes without a congressional declaration of war. It sometimes seems that the executive branch goes against the legitimacy of the constitution. Moreover, it goes against the international laws and privacy of own citizens.
 The federal constitution contains explicit provisions concerning with war, rebellions, invasions, and domestic violence within a state. It contains no such provisions for emergency in general (Gilmore, 463). So, Gilmore pointed out that in order to act efficiently, presidents goes outside the limits and act unconstitutionally. I agree with him. The federal constitution needs explicit provisions concerning with emergency situations. Without those provisions, U.S Presidents played times and again the implied powers in which the "general welfare clause" and the "necessary and proper clause" gave elasticity to the constitution. The Tokin Gulf Resolution was approved by Congress in 1964 and it was repeal by Congress in 1971. After that President waged wars without Congress’s approval.


The War Power Resolution of 1973
            In fact, the United States spent many years in war conflicts without declaration of war during the Korean and Vietnam wars. President Nixon conducted secret bombings of Cambodia during Vietnam War without telling Congress. Many members of Congress became concerned with the use of armed forces of executive power and they tried to limit it by legislative power because they felt that the president had too much power. Under the United States Constitution, war powers are divided. According to the Article I, Section 8, Congress has the power to declare war, raise and support the armed forces, control the war funding. On the other hand, the President is commander-in-chief of the military, and militia according to Article II, Section 2. Moreover, the President has the right to sign or veto congressional acts, such as declaration of war. The War Powers Resolution was passed by both the House of Representatives and Senate, but vetoed by President Richard Nixon. By a two-thirds vote in each house, Congress overrode the veto and enacted the joint resolution into law on November 7, 1973. In this case, as a head of Democratic Party, President Nixon applied his legislative power by using veto.
            According to the War Powers Resolution, the President requires to notify Congress within 48 hours of committing armed forces to military action. Moreover, it forbids armed forces from remaining for more than 60 days, with a further 30 days withdrawal period. In fact, it limits the President’s use of military force or a declaration of war without an authorization of Congress. The War Power Resolution showed that Congress tried to control the presidential power concerning with war.
            Even though, Congress partly limited the President’s war power, American presidents waged many wars. Looking to American history, Yoo pointed out that from Truman and Korea to Clinton's intervention in Kosovo; American presidents have had to act decisively on the world stage without a declaration of war. They are able to do so, Yoo argues, because the Constitution grants the president, Congress, and the courts very different powers, requiring them to negotiate the country's foreign policy (John C. Yoo, 2005).
AUMF 1991
President Bush had deployed over 500,000 U.S. troops without Congressional authorization to Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf region in the preceding five months in response to Iraq's August 2, 1990 invasion of Kuwait. President Bush said that as Commander-in-chief he did not need Congressional authorization to use military force against Iraq and that his request for a Congressional joint resolution was merely a courtesy to Congress. It was called the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) and was approved in the United States Senate on January 12, 1991 by a vote of 52 to 47. After the Cold War, it was the first time of use of the forces without Congress’s approval. Like other American Presidents, George H W Bush reopened the new era of American Presidential power.  The UNSC’s resolution 660, in which UN condemned the invasion in Kuwait and demanded Iraq withdraw immediately, was a green light for Bush to promote its role.   

John Locke defined the concept of prerogative power in his Second Treatise of Government as the power to act according to discretion for the public good, without the prescription of the law, and sometimes even against it. In fact, the prerogative theory not only allows presidents to do anything that is not forbidden but allows them to do things that are explicitly forbidden when in the national interest. Lincoln exercised such prerogative power in the Civil War and this period has been described as a time of “constitutional dictatorship” (Pika, Maltese, 2013).
 President Bush also exercised prerogative powers as part of “war on terror”. Moreover, he even violated the Geneva Conventions and basic human rights by authorizing CIA to establish secret prisons in several countries to detain and interrogate al-Qaida suspects. Additionally, Bush used that power domestically by authorizing the use of domestic wiretaps without warrants. Bush administration pointed out that it was justified and the same with what Lincoln and other president’s use of emergency war power. Finally, Obama approved the resumption of military trials for terror suspects after two-year suspension. He also signed into law an extension of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 in May 2011 that placed new limits on the use of surveillance of suspect terrorists.
AUMF 2001
America was attacked by a terrorist group masterminded by Bin laden on September 11, 2001. One week later, both Senate and Congress approved AUMF. The authorization granted the President the authority to use all "necessary and appropriate force" against those whom he determined "planned, authorized, committed or aided" the September 11th attacks, or who harbored said persons or groups. Did presidents make something more?
When we looked back the actions taken under that authority, based on this authorization, President George W. Bush took actions to Afghanistan, the Philippine, Georgia, Yemen, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Iraq, and Somalia. It means that he engaged terrorists group “around the world” as well as “on the high sea”. Moreover, Bush admiration detained many individuals at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, without trial. The AUMF allows the US government to wage war at any time, any place and on anyone deemed a threat to national security. It seemed the Constitution granted American President to wage war globally. There were many possible violation of international law in detaining suspects and conducting operations in these periods.
Bush not only used has war power internationally, but also domestically. He authorized the use of domestic wiretap without warrants. It was clearly the violation of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978. However, the Bush admiration pointed out the use of emergency war power by Lincoln and other presidents as justification for the wiretaps and noted that the AUMF 2001 implicitly gave approval for the president to take broad measures in response to the war on terror. An extraordinary circumstances after 9/11 attacks allowed President to use more power in foreign affair as well as domestic affairs. Bush applied prerogative power internationally and domestically.
According to prerogative theory, John Lock defined that it was the power to act according to discretion for the public good, without the prescription of the law, and sometime even against it. In my point of view, using prerogative power seriously damaged the checks-in-valance system of the Constitution because president can use his power ultimately. Using it should be a limited time. According to the Shank and Southworth, it is time to send the 2001 AUMF into the sunset, and to return the checks and balances that policy-makers put in place: the executive and legislative branches must deliberate before waging war (The Guardian, May 2013).
AUMF 2002
The AUMF 2002 was enacted October 16, 2002 is a passed by the United States Congress in October 2002 and authorizing President Bush to use force to liberate Iraq. The resolution cited many factors to justify the use of military force against Iraq. On the other hand it "supported" and "encouraged" diplomatic efforts by President George W. Bush to "strictly enforce through the U.N. Security Council. However, in the 2002 AUMF, the Congress limited Presidents to report back to Congress within 48 hours if he waged war without Congress’s approval. According to War Power Act, President needs to report back to Congress in 60 days.
Comparing the two, the 2001 legislation was an open-ended resolution authorizing Bush to go after anyone responsible for the 9/11 attacks. It’s clear Bush was intentionally making that the Iraq-9/11 linked because he had the authorization to wage war. He intended to go to war and would have done so based solely upon powers granted under the War Powers Act, which allows the president to commit to war and report back to Congress within 60 days. The 2002 IWR laid out very strict criteria (48 hrs.), and Bush still violated the resolution. By the time when he signed AUMF 2002 was neither the war time nor the time when America was attacked. It was very different with all other resolutions I mentioned above.  The future of America should not be in the hands of handful people and the constitutions has adopted for hundred years.  However, there were many questions concerned with the constitution that if the Constitutions still going strong.
There were many wars that I explained above and all those wars were initiated by Presidents. Constitutionally, Congress starts wars and the president fights enemies. Final confirmation of Congress’s power over nation’s decision to go to war is provided by Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution. However, it forbids any state to “engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay of Congress. However, practically, many wars were initiated by Presidents even in the peace time. After 9/11 attacks they not only initiated wars but they also sometime used preemption. AUMF2002 shows that President Bush tried to apply Unliterary Theory as well as prerogative theory. The War Power resolution that congressional means to control military actions initiated by presidents appears even less effective in this case. There are raising questions that if there has being any others legislative means to control the borderless surprise attacks and if Obama heritages them all.  
The Killing of Osama Bin Laden
There were many bad experiences in American history in conducting operations in foreign countries. The successes and failures were greatly depending on the ability of presidents because America security remains highly dependent on the quality of president. To kill Osama Bin Laden, Obama hold a series of national security meeting and order a full review of the intelligence collected.  Despite its high risk of failure, the raid was ordered on April 28 and was successful. . It is clear that the killing of Osama Bin Laden was not the end of the terrorism. However, it was just the starting point of “Killing and Capture” policy for Obama. It is acceptable that constitutional for one country is unconstitutional for another. However, unconstitutional act for both countries is unacceptable.
It is sorrowful for Americans that instead of using preemptive policy, President Obama used “Killed and Capture Policy”. Both of them are controversial by the Constitution. America is not always in the extraordinary circumstances all the time. So, the use of military force is not always justified all the time. Instead of using conventional military forces, Obama used the smart forces to avoid international outcries.  He started to use this method in the killing of Osama Bin Laden in the territory of Pakistan. Moreover, Obama has authorized the “targeted killing” against al-Qaida terrorist’s suspects using missile strike by unmanned drones for many years. Those secret campaigns have killed 4,700 people in Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia. According to the research by Bureau of Investigative Journalism, drone strikes killed between 474 and 881 civilians including 176 children in Pakistan between 2004 and last year (The telegraph, March 6, 20013) The implementing one’s own national security should not be broken other’s ones.
Obama approved in March 2011 the resumption of military trials there for terror suspects after two year suspension. He also signed into law an extension of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 in May 2011 that placed no new limits on the use of surveillance of suspected terrorists. They were the legacy of what Obama accepted from Bush admiration. As the results, American faces many criticisms domestically and internationally today. I think, Obama conducts more than that in monitoring sector. Based on the internal documents from the National Security Agency (NSA), the U.S government might have been monitoring German chancellor Angela Merkel’s cell phone for more than 10 years. It was very shameful conducts in diplomacy among alliances. Such kinds of acts may effects on America’s future war in organizing alliances.
In exercising effective international leadership, it is difficult for the United States because of the power separations of government branches in the Constitution. Presidents’ personality and operation styles greatly affect on cohesiveness of the government branches because the President is the central policy maker in many international affairs. It shows that dependence on presidential leadership in international affairs carries many risks in domestic’s politics. On the other hand, dependence on presidential leadership in National Security policy also effects on foreign affairs and international politics.
 In fact, both the president and Congress have formal constitutional powers in international affairs. However, nowadays in America, the powers of federal government in international affairs are “inherent, plenary, and exclusive”. They are not granted expressly by the Constitution. No matter what Obama has used the preemptive or “Killing and Capture” strategy, it will seriously effect on the Constitution. “It is an affront the constitution due process rights of all Americans, said Senator Rand Paul, a 50 year-old favorite of the anti-government Tea Party movement, who is expected to run for president in 2006 (The Telegraph, 06 March 2013).  In this point, I agree with what the Piker explained. He points out that the long-standing practice and necessity have combined to make the president the sole organ of the United States in the conduct of external affair.




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ခ်စ္သုေ၀ ခ်စ္ဦးညိဳ ခ်စ္ေဗဒင္ ခ်မ္းခ်မ္း ခ်မ္းျမသာစည္ ခ်မ္းျမသာစည္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ခ်မ္းေအးသာစံ ခ်ီေဗြ ခႏၱီး ဂန္ ့ေဂါ ဂမၻီရ ဂုတ္ထိပ္ ဂ်င္မီ ဂ်ီလတ္ ဂ်ဴး ငပုေတာ ငဖဲ ငါန္းဇြန္ ငါးသိုင္းေခ်ာင္း ငါ့သေရာက္ စကု စက္စဲ စကၤာပူ စစ္ကိုင္း စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္း စစ္ေတြ စတီဗင္ဦး စနဲျမိဳ ့ စမ္းေခ်ာင္း စမး္ေခ်ာင္း စံရတီမုိးျမင့္ စြမ္းအားရွင္ စလင္း စဥ့္ကိုင္ စဥ့္ကူး စာေပေဟာေျပာပြဲ စိတ္အဟာရ ရသစာမ်ား စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရး စိုင္းစိုင္းခမ္းလိွဳင္ စိုးစႏၵာထြန္း စိုးျပည့္သဇင္ စိုးျမတ္နႏၵာ စိုးျမတ္သူဇာ စိုးသူ စီးပြားေရး စုစုေႏြး စေလ စႏၵီျမင့္လြင္ ဆင္ဘို ဆင္ေပါင္၀ဲ ဆြမ္ပရာဘြမ္ ဆြာၿမိဳ႕ ဆားလင္းၾကီး ဆိပ္ျဖဴ ဆိုေတး ဆီဆိုင္ ဆီရာလီယြန္း ဆုပန္ထြာ ဇင္၀ိုင္း ဇန္ႏူး ဇဗၺဴသီိရိ ဇမၺဴသီရိ ဇြန္သင္ဇာ ဇြန္သံစဥ္ ဇလြန္ ဇာဂနာ ဇာနည္ထူးထူး ဇိုမီး တကသ တင္ဇာေမာ္ တင့္တင့္ထြန္း တင္းတိတ္ တစည တံတားဦး တနသၤာရီ တနသၤာရီတိုင္း တန္ ့ဆည္ တန္ ့ယန္း တပ္ကုန္း တမူး တရား တြန္းဇံ တြံေတး တလုပ္ တအာင္း(ပေလာင္) တာခ်ီလိတ္ တာေမြ တာေလ တိုက္ၾကီး တီက်စ္ တီးတိန္ တုိက္ၾကီး တူနီးရွား တႏိုင္း တႏို္င္း ထက္ထက္၀င့္ ထက္ထက္မိုးဦး ထန္းကုန္း ထန္းတပင္ ထန္းပင္ကုန္း ထြန္းထြန္း ထြန္းအိျႏၵာဗို ထားထက္ထက္ ထားဝယ္ ထီးခ်ိဳင့္ ထီးလင္း ထံုးတပိုေက်းရြာ ထူးဆန္းေထြလာ ထူးၾကီး ဒကၡိဏသီရိ ဒဂံု ဒဂံုဆိပ္ကမ္း ဒဂံုျမိဳ ့သစ္ ဒလ ဒလိုင္းလားမား ဒါးက ဒါရိုက္တာ၀ိုင္း ဒါရိုက္တာမိုက္တီး ဒိုက္ဦး ဒီပဲယင္း ဒီမိုကရက္တစ္ပါတီ(ျမန္္မာ) ဒီေမာဆို ဓႏုျဖဴ နတၱလင္း နတ္တလင္း နတ္ေမာက္ နန္းခင္ေဇယ်ာ နန္ဆန္ ့ နန္းဆုရတီစိုး နမၼတီး နမၼတူ နမ့္ခမ္း နမ့္စမ္ နမ့္ဆမ္ နမ့္လန္ နယ္သာလန္ နာဂ နားဟိုင္းလံု နာေရး နာေရးကူညီမွဳအသင္း နီနီခင္ေဇာ္ နႏၵာလိွဳင္ ပက္ထရစ္ရွာ ပခုုကၠဴ ပင္းတယ ပင္လည္ဘူး ပင္လံု ပင္ေလာင္း ပန္၀ါ ပန္ဆိုင္း ပန္းတေနာ္ ပန္းဘဲတန္း ပန္းေတာင္း ပြင့္နဒီေမာင္ ပြင့္ျဖဴ ပလက္၀ ပလိပ္ ပိုင္က်ံဳ ပိုလန္ ပီကင္း ပုဂံ ပုဇြန္ေတာင္ ပုဏၰားကြ်န္း ပုပၸါး ပံုပါက်င္ ပုဗၺသီရိ ပုလဲ ပုသိမ္ ပုသိမ္ခရိုင္ ပုသိမ္ၾကီး ပုေလာျမိဳ ့ ပူတာအို ပေလာင္ ပဲခူး ပဲခူးတိုင္း ပ်ဥ္းမနား ဖယ္ခံု ဖရူဆို ဖြာေထာင္ ဖြဲ႔စည္းပုံအေျခခံဥပေဒ ဖလမ္း ဖားကန္ ့ ဖာပြန္ ဖားေဆာင္း ဖုန္ၾကားရွင္း ဖ်ာပံု ၾကက္ယက္ ေက်းရြာ ၾကံခင္း ၾကည္ျဖဴ သွ်င္ ၾကည့္ျမင္တိုင္ ၾကည့္ျမင္တိုင္ ၾကာအင္းဆိပ္ၾကီး ၾကိဳ ့ပင္ေကာက္ ၾကဴကုတ္ ဗကပ ဗကသ ဗန္းေမာက္ ဗန္းေမာ္ ဗဟန္း ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ ဂြမ္ေမာ္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေဟာင္းထြန္းၾကည္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္း ဗိုလ္တေထာင္ ဗိုလ္ၾကင္ေမာင္ ဗိုလ္မွဴးၾကီးေစာဆန္းေအာင္ ဗိႆ ႏိုး ဗီယက္နမ္ ၿမိဳင္ၿမိဳ႕ ၿမိဳင္ႀကီးငူဆရာေတာ္ ဘဂၤါလီ ဘယ္လ္ဂ်ီယံ ဘားအံ ဘားအံၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ဘိုကေလး ဘီးလင္း ဘုတလင္ ဘုတ္ျပင္း ဘုရားၾကီး ဘုရားသံုးဆူ ဘုိကေလး ဘူးသီးေတာင္ မကၠဆီကို မကွေးတိုင်း မခ်မ္းေဘာ့ မဂၤလာဒံု မဂၤလာပြဲ မဂၤလာေတာင္ညြန္ ့ မင္းကင္း မင္းကြန္း မင္းကိုႏိုင္ မင္းတပ္ မင္းတုန္း မင္းဘူး မင္းျပား မင္းလွ မင္းအုပ္စိုး မင္းေမာ္ကြန္း မင္းေသြးသစ္ မင္းေအာင္လိွဳင္ မင်းအောင်လှိုင် မတၱရာ မတူပီ မထက္ မန္စီ မန္တလေးတိုင်း မန္းေဂ်ာ္နီ မဘသ မဘိမ္း မယ္စဲ့ မယ္လ မယ္လိုဒီ မရမ္းကုန္း မြန္ မြန္ျပည္နယ္ မြန္ျပည္သစ္ မြန္အမ်ိဳးသားပါတီ မြန္းေအာင္ မလိွဳင္ မလႊကုန္း မွန်ပြည်နယ် မွဲ ့ မဟန မဟာေအာင္ေျမ မအီ မအူပင္ မာန္ေအာင္ မာယာလူမ်ိဳူး အေၾကာင္း မာရီနာ မာရီလင္မြန္ရိုး မိစႏၵီ မိတီၳလာ မိတီ္ၳလာ မိတၳီလာ မိတ္ကပ္ မိန္ ့ခြန္း မိုးကုတ္ မိုင္းကိုင္ မိုင္းခတ္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ မိုင္းခုတ္ မိုင္းဆတ္ မိုင္းတံု မိုင္းထား မိုင္းပန္ မိုင္းပြန္ မိုင္းယန္း မိုင္းျပင္း မိုင္းျဖတ္ မိုင္းရွဴး မိုင္းလား မိုင္းေနာင္ မိုင္းေယာင္း မိုးညွင္း မိုးညိဳ မိုးနဲ မိုးမိတ္ မိုးယုစံ မိုးျဗဲ မိုးသီးဇြန္ မိုးေကာင္း မိုးေဇညိမ္း မိုးေမာက္ မိုးေဟကို မိုးေအာင္ရင္ မံုးကိုး မုဏ္း မုဒံု မုန္း၀န္း မုန္းကို မံုရြာ မုံရြာၿမိဳ႕ မုိင္းခတ္ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ မုိးညႇင္းၿမိဳ႕နယ္ မူဆယ္ မေကြး မေကြးတိုင္း မေလးရွား မ်ိဳးေစာင့္ဥပေဒ မႏၱေလး မႏၱေလးတိုင္း ယင္းမာပင္ ယန္ဟီးလီ ယမံုမိုး ယြန္းယြန္း ယီမင္ ယုသႏၱာတင္ ယူကရိန္း ျပင္သစ္ ျပင္ဦးလြင္ ျပဇာတ္ ျပည္ ျပည္ခို္င္ျဖိဳး ျပည္ၾကီးတံခြန္ ျပည္ႀကီးတံခြန္ ျပည္သူ ့ဂုဏ္ရည္ ျပြန္တန္ဆာ ျဖိဳးၾကီး ျဖိဳးျဖိဳးေအာင္ ျဖိဳးေငြစိုး ျဖဴး ျဖဴျဖဴေက်ာ္သိန္း ျမ၀တီ ျမင္းမူ ျမင္းျခံ ျမင့္ျမတ္ ျမစ္က်ိဳး ျမစ္ဆံု ျမစ္ၾကီးနား ျမစ္သား ျမတ္ေကသီေအာင္ ျမန္မာမေလးမ်ား ျမန္မာမေလးမ်ားvideo ျမန္မာ့ရိုးးရာ ပန္းးပုပညာ ျမန္ေအာင္ ျမဝတီ ျမသန္းစံ ျမိတ္ထား၀ယ္ ျမိဳ ့သစ္ ျမိဳင္ ျမိဳင္ၾကီးငူ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ ရခိုင္အမ်ိဳးသားပါတီ ရခိုင္အမ်ဳိးသားပါတီ ရတနာမိုင္ ရတာနာ ရန္ကင္း ရန္ကုန္ ရန္ကုန္စက္မွဳတကၠသိုလ္ ရန္ကုန္တိုင္း ရန္ကုန္ျပည္သူ ့အက်ိဳးေဆာင္ကြန္ယက္ ရန်ကုန်တိုင်း ရပ္ေစာက္ ရမည္းသင္း ရမ္းျဗဲ ရြာငံ ရွင္ဆႏၵာဓိက ရွမ္းတိုင္းရင္းသားမ်ားဒီမိုကရက္တစ္ပါတီ(က်ားျဖဴပါတီ) ရွမ္းနီ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ ရွားေတာ ရွီဘုယဇာနည ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ ရုရွား ရေသ့ေတာင္ ရဲတိုက္ ရဲထြဋ္ ရဲေလး လက္ပံတန္း လက္ပံေတာင္း လက္ေ၀ွ ့ လင္းေခး လပြတၱာ လမ္းမေတာ္ လယ္သမား လယ္သိမ္းေျမသိမ္း လယ္ေ၀း လြယ္လင္ လြိဳင္လင္ လြိဳင္ေကာ္ လွည္းကူး လွည္းတန္း လွှတ်တော် လွာကာေက်းရြာ လွိဳင္သာယာ လသာ လဟယ္ လားရွိဳး လာအို လိြဳင္လင္ လိြဳင္ေကာ္ လိွဳင္ လိွဳင္းဘြဲ လိွဳင္သာယာ လိုင္ဇာ လိႈင္းဘြဲ႔ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ လီဆူ လံုးခင္း လုလုေအာင္ လူမင္း လူေပ်ာက္ေၾကာ္ျငာ လဲခ်ား လႊတ္ေတာ္ ဝတ္မွဳန္ေရွြရည္ ဝိုင္းစုခိုင္သိန္း ဝိုင္းေမာ္ ဝိုင္းေလး ဝီရသူ ႀကည့္ျမင္တုိင္ သကၠလ သက္မြန္ျမင့္ သခင္တင္ျမ သံဃာ သဃၤန္းကြ်န္း သင္ဇာဝင့္ေက်ာ္ သင္ဇာႏြယ္၀င္း သဇင္ သံတြဲ သတိေပးခ်က္ သထုံ သထံု သနပ္ပင္ သန္လ်င္ သန္းေရႊ သပိတ္က်င္း သံဖြူဇရပ် သၾကၤန္ သံျဖဴဇရပ္ သရက္ သံလ်င္ သဥၹာႏြယ္၀င္း သာစည္ သားညီ သာယာ၀တီ သာေကတ သာေပါငး သာေပါင္းျမိဳ ့နယ္ သိန္းစိန္ သိန္းနီ သိႏၷီ သီတဂူဆရာေတာ္ သီဟ၀င္းတင္ သီေပါ သု၀ဏၰ သု၀ဏၰ၀တီ သံုးခြ သံုးဆယ္ သူရဦးတင္ဦး သူရဦးေရႊမန္း သူရဦးေအာင္ကို သူရေရႊမန္း သူရဲေကာင္း သံေတာင္ၾကီးျမိဳ ့ သေရာ္စာ သဲကုန္း သၪၨာႏြယ္ဝင္း ဟန္၀င္းေအာင္ ဟန္ထူးလြင္ ဟန္သီ ဟသၤာတ ဟားခါး ဟာသ ဟိုင္းၾကီးကြ်န္း ဟိုပံုး ဟိုယာေဒသ ဟုမၼလင္း ဟုိပန္ ဟဲဟိုး အကယ္ဒမီ အကယ္ဒမီ၂၀၁၂ အဂၤပူ အင္ဂ်လီနာ ဂ်ိဳလီ အင္းစိန္ အင္းတေကာ္ အင္လံုရြာ အင္းေတာ္ အင္းေတာ္ႀကီး အင္းေလး အစၥေရး အဆိုအမိန္ ့ အမရပူရ အမ္း အမ်ိဳးသမီးပါတီ အမ်ိဳးသားကြန္ဂရက္ပါတီ အမ်ိဳးသားဒီမိုကေရစီပါတီသစ္ အမ်ိဳးသားပါတီ အျမန္လမ္း အရာေတာ္ အရိုင္း အလွျပင္မယ္ အလံု အသုတ္ အာဆီယံ အာဇာနည္ေန ့ အိမ္မဲ အိေခ်ာပို အိႏၵိယ အီရန္ အီသီယိုးပီးယား အုတ္တြင္း အေကာက္ေတာင္ အေဖ်ာက္ အေမရိကန္ အေျခခံဥပေဒ အေလာင္းေတာ္ကႆ ပ ဥတၱရသီရိ ဦး၀င္းတင္ ဦး၀ီရသူ ဦးဂမၻီရ ဦးထင္လင္းဦး ဦးထင္ေက်ာ္ ဦးထင်ကျော် ဦးနု ဦးပိုင္ ဦးဖိုးက်ား ဦးျမင့္ေဆြ ဦးဝင္းခ်ိဳ ဦးဝင္းတင္ ဦးဝင္းထိန္ ဦးသန္ ့ ဦးေတဇ ဦးေန၀င္း ဧရာ၀တီ ဧရာ၀တီတိုင္း ဧရာဝတီ ဧဝရတ္ေတာင္ ဧဝံေမသုတံ ေ၀ဠဳေက်ာ္ ေ၀ါ ေကတုမတီ ေကအိုင္အို ေကာ့ကရိတ္ ေကာင္းျပည့္ ေကာ့မွဴး ေကာလင္း ေကာ့ေသာင္း ေကာ္နီ ေက်းသီးျမိဳ ့ ေက်ာက္ဆည္ ေက်ာက္တံခါး ေက်ာက္တံတား ေက်ာက္တန္း ေက်ာက္ပန္းေတာင္း ေက်ာက္ပန္းေတာင္းၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ေက်ာက္ၾကီး ေက်ာက္မဲ ေက်ာက္ျဖဴ ေက်ာက္ေတာ္ ေက်ာက္ေျမာင္း ေက်ာင္းကုန္း ေက်ာင္းသားလွဳပ္ရွားမွဳ ေက်ာင္းသားသပိတ္ ေက်ာ္ကိုကို ေက်ာ္သူ ေက်ာ္ဟိန္း ေက်ာ္ေက်ာ္ဗို ေခ်ာက္ ေခ်ာင္းဆံု ေခ်ာင္းသာ ေခ်ာင္းဦး ေခ်ာရတနာ ေဂ်ညီညီ ေဂ်ာက္ဂ်က္ ေငြမွဳန္ရတီ ေငြေဆာင္ ေစတုတၱရာ ေစာဘြဲ့မွဴး ေဆာ ေဆာ့ေလာ္ ေဇယ်၀တီ ေဇယ်ာသီရိ ေဇရဲထက္ ေဇာ္ဝင္းထြဋ္ ေဇာ္သက္ေထြး ေညာင္တုန္း ေညာင္ဦး ေညာင္ေျခေထာက္ ေညာင္ေရႊ ေညာင္ေလးပင္ ေတာကြ်ဲအင္း ေတာင္ကုတ္ ေတာင္ငူ ေတာင္တြင္းၾကီး ေတာင္ဒဂံု ေတာင္ၾကီး ေတာင္ျပိဳလက္၀ဲ ေတာင္ျပံဳး ေတာင္သမန္ ေတာင္သာ ေတာင္ဥကၠလာ ေထာက္ၾကန္ ့ ေဒၚၾကိဳင္ၾကိဳင္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ ေဒးဒရဲ ေဒါက္တာညိဳညိဳသင္း ေဒါက္တာတင့္ေဆြ ေဒါက္တာထြန္းလြင္ ေဒါက္တာျမင့္ေထြး ေဒါက္တာရန္မ်ိဳးသိမ္း ေဒါက္တာလွေက်ာ္ေဇာ ေဒါက္တာသန္းထြန္း ေဒါပံု ေနတိုး ေနမ်ိဳးဇင္ ေနမ်ိဳးေ၀ ေနျပည္ေတာ္ ေနာင္ခ်ိဳ ေနာင္ဒြန္းေက်းရြာ ေနာင္လံုး အုပ္စု ေနာ္အုန္းလွ ေပးစာ ေပးစာ - ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ျမ၀င္း (သို႔) ဗိုလ္ျမ၀ါး ေပါက္ ေပါက္ေခါင္း ေပါက္ေတာ ေပါင္ ေပါင္းတည္ ေပ်ာ္ဘြယ္ ေဖြးေဖြး ေဖာင္ၾကီး ေဖာင္းျပင္ ေၾကးမံုဦးေသာင္း ေၾကာ္ျငာ ေဗဒင္ ေဗလု၀ ေဘာလခဲ ေမ ေမခလာ ေမစံပယ္ညိဳ ေမွာ္ဘီ ေမသက္ခိုင္ ေမသန္းႏု ေမာက္မယ္ ေမာခ်ီး ေမာင္ေဆာင္းခ ေမာင္ေတာ ေမာင္ေမာင္၀မ္း ေမာ့စ္ ေမာ္ခ်ီး ေမာ္လျမိဳင္ ေမာ္လိုက္ ေမာ္္လ္ဒိုဗာ ေျပတီဦး ေျမပံု ေျမာက္ဒဂံု ေျမာက္ဥကၠလာ ေျမာက္ဦး ေျမာင္ ေျမာင္းျမ ေရး ေရစၾကိဳ ေရစႀကိဳၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ေရတာရွည္ ေရနီ ေရနံေခ်ာင္း ေရၾကည္ ေရျဖဴ ေရွြဘိုျမိဳ ့ ေရွြမွဳန္ရတီ ေရွြျပည္သာ ေရဦး ေရႊ၀ါေရာင္ ေရႊကူ ေရႊက်င္ ေရႊစက္ေတာ္ ေရႊည၀ါဆရာေတာ္ ေရႊတိဂံု ေရႊဘို ေရႊမွဳန္ရတီ ေရႊျပည္သာ ေရႊလီ ေရႊေညာင္ ေရႊေတာင္ ေရႊေပါကၠံ ေရႊေသာင္ယံ ေလးမ်က္ႏွာ ေလးျဖဴ ေလွာ္ကား ေလာက္ကိုင္ ေလာင္းလံု ေလာပိတ ေဝါျမိဳ႕နယ္ ေအးခ်မ္းျမတ္မိုး ေအးျမတ္သူ ေအသင္ခ်ိဳေဆြ ေအာင္ဆန္းဦး ေအာင္ပန္း ေအာင္မင္း ေအာင္ရဲလင္း ေအာင္လံ ေအာင္ေျမသာစံ ေအာင္ေသာင္း ေအာ္စကာ ႏြားထိုးၾကီး ႏိုင္ငံေရးအက်ဥ္းသား ႏိုင္မြန္ခ်မ္း

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